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Race, the CJS and the Lammy Review

Oct 03, 2016

                                                            

David Lammy’s independent government sponsored review of the treatment of, and outcomes for, black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) people in the Criminal Justice System is unique in a number of ways; particularly an opposition MP being asked to lead an independent government inquiry of any type is quite unprecedented.

That the inquiry is focused on a subject area as contentious and emotive as race and CJS only adds to the challenge.

Lammy himself has been keen to stress this context, often stating that had he been asked to complete this review for his own party leader it may have had a different feel than the one he will produce for the Prime Minister. Clearly a strong sense of realpolitik is at the forefront of Lammy’s thinking and its been made very clearly that he won’t bring forward proposals that don’t have a strong evidence base and/or are likely to be politically unpalatable to the Prime Minister and Secretary of State of Justice. 

As somebody who has worked quite closely with Lammy’s review team I have often been put in the position of defending the review to the charge that Lammy will fail to hold the CJS to account. At BTEG we understand some of the scepticism that this review has received in BAME communities and other circles. Undoubtedly, over the past eight years, race has diminished as a priority across the criminal justice system. Our view is that we have to be realistic in our expectations but we are fully committed to engage and support the work of the review.

Lammy himself did a fine job in rejecting the notion that he would be producing a timid report with the speech he gave in July on gangs at a conference on ethnic disproportionality in London’s youth justice system, held at London Councils in partnership with BTEG. At the conference he gave a powerful, thoughtful, evidence based critique of valid concerns around the use of gang’s databases. He raised legitimate concerns around civil liberties, the highest levels of ethnic disproportionality that he has seen so far within the CJS, the use of such information as evidence in court and the concern that rather than diverting young people from the CJS, gangs policy could be pulling many into it by way of mere association, where they reside and their ethnic background.

From this example it’s clear that Lammy will not shy away from bringing forward the difficult questions where he finds the evidence base to support his assertions.

From the position of the Young Review and BTEG, with a new Secretary of State for Justice who has hit the pause button on Michael Gove’s prison reforms, it is essential that such a core part of CJS reform places addressing ethnic disproportionality at its heart from the get go and doesn’t park it with the stock answer of `we are waiting for the Lammy Review’s report.’

The context of change politically has been huge over the past few months. As the dust settles after the referendum and with a new incumbent at 10 Downing Street for me there’s a sense that post-Brexit Britain is in search of a new national identity.

The Prime Minister has put addressing inequality at the centre of her vision. The timing of the Lammy Review couldn’t be better. 

Photo credit: Policy Exchange via VisualHunt.com / CC BY

 

 

BREXIT and young BME people

Aug 02, 2016

Migration control and economic security were probably the two main issues for voters in the recent referendum. I haven’t found any analysis of how BME people voted in the referendum but polling before it suggested that nearly two thirds them would vote to remain. 

In the post-war period many mainstream politicians argued BME immigrants could only integrate into British society if their number was controlled. However, in 2004, the British Government agreed to the Free Movement of Labour (FML), goods, services and finance within the EU but estimated that very few migrants would come here from the EU.

Twelve years later there are 3 million EU migrants in the UK and 1.3 million Brits living and working in other member states. 

During that same period we have also had:

  • a severe economic downturn in the USA and Europe caused by the collapse of the several large banks.

  • austerity which put even greater pressure on public services and working people.

  • an on-going severe lack of social housing.

Although the UK has now technically achieved ‘full employment’ with unemployment rate at 4.9% (not true for young people and BME communities), how many of these are full-time and with a living wage is a matter for debate.

We are told that the FML suppresses wage levels, especially for low paid workers. That may or may not be true. It’s clear that politicians did not think through the implications of its FML policy and we haven’t heard anything over the past 12 years about the impact of FML on BME jobseekers.

BTEG have spent many years working to narrow the employment gap between the UK’s BME and white workforce, which is still around 11 per cent. In London there is also a 20 per cent pay gap between BME and white workers. For young black men the unemployment rate in London is 30% more than double that of white young people and only 10% of apprentices in the UK are from BME backgrounds.

The reality for many young BME people is that they are competing against their white British counterparts and well-educated, bilingual young white Europeans.  As a young black man from London told me, it's hard getting jobs in Oxford Street (retail sector) these days when ‘you only speak one language.’

I recently asked a well educated young black male Londoner why he had wanted to stay in the EU. He said economic security (being part of the single market) and employment opportunities. I then asked him what he thought about competing for jobs in London with young people from other member states that are often white, well educated and bilingual. He hadn’t really considered this.

How many young BME people speak other European languages and can realise the economic benefit of working in the EU? It’s probably more the case that many young BME people enjoy the cultural benefits the EU offers because of affordable and restriction free travel.

I don’t know how many young BME people from low income backgrounds voted to remain in the EU but clearly most Londoners did. I suspect those BME people that voted to leave the EU did so for a combination of reasons, but the electorate was denied an intelligent debate about migration and this vacuum was filled by ‘fear’ mongers. We also saw offensive racist campaigning, designed to whip up fear amongst white voters.

One former Prime Minister even suggested that people were mainly concerned about non-EU migration. Of course, there will always be some people that would prefer if there was no immigration at all. It’s probably this group of people that now feels at liberty to abuse and attack BME people, migrants and refugees.

The State needs to lead the fight against this unlawful behaviour and we all have duty to stop hate crime and racism.

Ethnic disproportionality in London’s Youth Justice System

Jul 25, 2016

On 15 July London Councils and BTEG hosted a half-day conference on ethnic disproportionality in London’s Youth Justice System. The event was attended by over 60 attendees from local government, the voluntary sector, Mayors Office for Policing and Crime, members of the Young Review Independent Advisory Group and other key partners, such as London Community Rehabilitation Company.

There was a variety of presentations on the national policy context including:

  • Baroness Lola Young speaking about the work of the Young Review Independent Advisory Group which she chairs, its work with MOJ and NOMS and the need for a focused response to the challenge of the over representation and treatment of children and young people from London’s BAME communities;
  • David Lammy MP, who is approaching the halfway point in his review into the over-representation of ethnic minority people in the justice system from the point of prosecution
  • Lin Hinnigan, outgoing CEO of the Youth Justice Board, on the context and the Board’s response to ethnic disproportionality within the youth justice system

There were also excellent examples of relevant works in progress in the London boroughs of Hackney and Lewisham: In Lewisham, following a seminar chaired by Lola Young, a number of work streams have been developed working with community partners in areas such as commissioning and prevention services. In Hackney we heard about an ambitious corporate programme to improve outcomes across the boroughs services for young black boys/ men in employment, educations, social services and youth justice.  A key feature of this programme has been the borough’s commitment to work in partnership with communities involving the user group and civil society partners such as Hackney CVS. 

cid:A16CF18A-8B69-41E4-A090-8EE5370E29BD@homeBoth examples resonated with the Young Review and our recommendations for the need to build social capital and for statutory agencies to engage in long term partnerships with those affected communities.

David Lammy spoke about the levels of ethnic disproportionality in gangs policy and the specific questions his review would be posing in this area, particularly around the accuracy of gangs nominal lists and the use of such evidence in pursuing cases seeking to prove gang association, an aggravating factor which could lead to harsher sentencing.. He welcomed the Mayor of London’s commitment to review the Metropolitan Police’s gang matrix.

Lin Hinnigan, outgoing CEO of the Youth Justice Board, told the audience that ethnic disproportionality was now one of the YJB’s top three priorities. She highlighted the depth of the challenge in London with reference to the statistics from 2014/15 below

  • 55% of first time entrants to the youth justice system from London YOT returns were from a BAME background
  • 77% of children and young people held in custody from London YOTS were from BAME groups (51% were black)
  • 84% of children and young people held in custody on remand in London are from BAME groups (52% were black)

Sophie Linden, the Deputy Mayor for London, outlined key areas of the Mayor’s policy focus around policing and community safety and addressing ethnic disproportionality, improving police community relations and making the Met Police more representative of the communities they serve.

BTEG will be following up after the event through our policy work under the Young Review with both London Councils and MOPAC. 

Chris – Project Officer, Making The Leap

May 18, 2016

I have lived in Mitcham in South London pretty much my whole life. While I was born and raised in the UK, both my parents were raised in Ghana which influenced a lot of my upbringing.

I am a huge fan of literature and love to read in my spare time. I also have a passion for writing as a hobby, regularly finding time to come up with and explore new ideas for books. It is a future ambition of mine to one day publish a book of my own.

After my A-Levels, I attended the University of Hertfordshire, where I got my BA in Business Administration. My writing ability and natural problem solving skills drew me towards marketing, and upon graduating I became determined to pursue it as a career.

One thing that has been an issue for me in the past was my confidence in interviews. I have always been sure of my abilities, and I have no problem striking up conversation or even presenting in front of many people. But somehow, the very idea of selling myself to a panel of interviewers always intimidated me. It got to the point where I felt so much pressure to make a great first impression that it drove me to make a bad one. This would then make me feel under even more pressure to impress during the next interview, thus continuing the cycle.

I started to take on voluntary and temporary jobs in relevant roles for experience in order to boost both my CV and my confidence, but it never seemed to be enough to get me used to the interview process. I occasionally found success when applying for jobs, but they often deviated from what I was determined to pursue; marketing. But then I found Making The Leap.

Enrolling on the MTL workshop was one of the best decisions I ever made. The programme challenges you to experience the realities of a corporate workplace, increasingly testing your abilities as the days go by until you find yourself doing tasks you would otherwise never consider doing as a matter of course. Going through it not only helped me dispel many of my interview anxieties, it helped me to feel like the professional I knew I was capable of becoming. I am incredibly grateful to the MTL programme, and when the opportunity to work with the people who helped me presented itself, I with no hesitation.

I am now in a role that I not only love, but which gives me a number of tasks identical to those I would experience in a marketing role. I feel more confident than ever that my ambition to build a successful marketing career is within my reach, and I have both Making The Leap and the Moving On Up initiative to thank for that.

Kenny – YBM project officer, Hackney CVS

May 13, 2016
 Kenny – YBM project officer, Hackney CVS

Kenny – YBM project officer, Hackney CVS

I started off as a young man whose parents were very protective of and never let me interact with the outside world. Going to school was for me the only opportunity to come into contact with other individuals but my lack of interaction with people led me to withdraw into myself. Unable to understand how to relate with others, I was always on the defensive, which brought me into challenging situations. As a result, my school decided to assign me to a mentor – Nick, with whom I met every week to talk about my life inside and outside of school. We also did many enjoyable activities such as bowling, going to watch Arsenal games, build model cars etc.

Before having a mentor, I felt that no one knew how to deal with me but Nick had patience and allowed me to open up when I was ready. He taught me essential life skills and the importance of politics and political figures. One of the last times I saw my mentor was at a Christmas party at 11 Downing Street with the Chancellor of Exchequer who was Gordon Brown at the time. Nick believed in me, spoke words of wisdom into my life and years later it manifested.     

This mentoring programme not only showed me how to interact with others and become part of the society, but it also gave me a sense of direction as I realised that I wanted to work in the government. Eight years later, I started to work for the Treasury and over the last three years, I have been volunteering with Hackney council as an inspirational peer leader for the Moving On Up initiative. I use my life experiences and success to encourage young people who face difficulties to get into work and education, and I help them build confidence the same way Nick has helped me.

My mentor and the various organisations I came across have had an enormous impact on my life as they help me build a strong foundation. They invested their time in me and because of that, I have been able to come this far. I believe that people like me are examples of hope, change and resilience and no matter what situation you are in, you can turn a mess into a message. All it requires is patience, someone who can believe in you, motivate you and help you get a sense of direction. This is exactly what plenty of young people out there need in their life.  

Hackney CVS Visionaries

May 04, 2016
After an intense week visiting major places in Atlanta and meeting incredible African American entrepreneurs, the young black men from Hackney CVS are back in London, inspired and motivated as ever, and ready to take their career plan to the next level.
BTEG had the chance to meet with some of these young men to talk about this life changing trip and their “new resolutions”. Their positive energy was palpable as well as their eagerness to share their experience. When asked about their exciting sojourn to Atlanta, five words resonated among all of them: “We want to go back”. However, they all recognised that coming back to London was necessary. In fact, this trip to the home of Martin Luther King broadened their vision and made them realise that there is a lot to be done in London especially in black communities. For these young men, going to Atlanta was not only needed, insightful and powerful, but it was also inspiring as they met entrepreneurs at the top of their craft and had the opportunity to witness in six days, what Bola Abisogun FRICS built in 16 years. Surprisingly, they didn’t expect this trip to have such an impact on them. As young black men in Atlanta, they didn’t feel like a minority. The environment they interacted with, the people they met and how they were being addressed influenced the way they carried themselves. Better yet, the language they used to describe themselves also changed: they became entrepreneurs. They were also struck by the many initiatives humble and hardworking African American entrepreneurs took to empower their community especially young people. 
Amongst these initiatives is the Allen Entrepreneurial Institute whose aim is to give young people the opportunity to become leaders and entrepreneurs as well as developers of communities and creators of jobs. Hackney CVS young men also noticed that in Atlanta, there is a strong unity within the black community, a high respect for black-owned business and most importantly, young people are encouraged to be the best they can be. This is why, back in Hackney with a self-belief at 100%, the young men have created a network to encourage and support each other, as they are ready to be at the top of their craft and build their own legacy.
They also feel the importance to be role models to young black men in empowering them to achieve great things, and to use the knowledge they gain in Atlanta to bring positive changes to London’s black communities. The first step toward these changes has to be unity within the communities then respect and development of black-owned business. There is also a need for a shift of focus that is to say; creating a movement whereby entrepreneurship is every young black men aspiration.
To Hackney CVS visionaries, as we would like to call them, these great ideas for changes wouldn’t have been strengthened if not for Bola Abisogun FRICS, Mike Williams (Urbanis) and Jeremy Crook OBE (BTEG), who inspired and encouraged them, and enabled this trip to Atlanta, a place which now occupies an important place in their life. In return, BTEG would like to thank Deji Adeoshun, Kenny Ladipo, Samson Osun, Daniel Burnett-Williams, Nathan De-Souza, Brian Ohouot and Awat Kiflyesus for sharing their experience, and wishes them all the best in their future plans.
 
To learn more about this trip to Atlanta, click here.

All London Voices

Apr 05, 2016

Getting the views and concerns of young black, Asian and minority ethnic Londoners heard in the 2016 Mayoral election

In case it may have passed you by, Londoners are electing a new Mayor in May, when the huge political personality that is the current Mayor, Boris Johnson, steps down.

The campaign up until now has been quite subdued, with the Westminster village focusing on a referendum about the tiny matter of the country’s future relationship with Europe. Although it has so far failed to produce any fireworks, the substantive issues of the campaign are of profound importance to all Londoners and to the country. They focus primarily around economic prosperity, growing inequality and London’s housing crisis.

Some of the key challenges that face London’s BAME communities are demonstrated by:

  • Unemployment amongst Pakistani women in London is 28.6% compared to 15.7% for white women
  • Unemployment amongst black undergraduates six months after gaining their degree is 9.7% compared to 4.6% for their white peers
  • Around two in five Black African and Bangladeshi people in London live in overcrowded housing

What these figures highlight is the wide ranging impact of inequality across the capital and how it effects young ethnic minorities and can make it feel that they are locked out of the opportunities in one of the richest cities in the world. Engaging people in the democratic process is critical and voting levels are lowest for young people and ethnic minority groups.

CORE is an alliance of civil society organisations working to address race equality. It would like to produce an e-manifesto for change that reflects the views of young BAME Londoners. With the kind financial contribution of Trust for London, the Black Training and Enterprise Group (BTEG) – a CORE member organisation - will oversee All London Voices, a time-limited project with the aim of capturing the views of London’s BAME (black, Asian and minority ethnic) voluntary and community sector and young people and giving them a voice in the run-up to the 2016 London Mayoral elections.

BTEG will hold a series of community consultations with BAME organisations through our networks and beyond to inform the e-manifesto.  It will set out the ten main concerns and policy ideas of London’s BAME communities for the mayoral candidates to consider and for the chosen mayor to address over the next five years. Such issues as affordable social housing, welfare and tax credits reductions, unemployment, and pay gaps are likely to be high priorities.

There will be a hustings meeting of the candidates in late April, with an audience of young people, held at the British Library.

CORE is also conducting a survey of young people 16-30 and hopes to attract a 300-500 responses. Click here to view the survey.

This is a crucial election and our aim is to ensure that the views of young people from London’s BAME communities are heard.

The Government’s plans for achieving the BME 2020 challenge

Mar 21, 2016

In 2015 Prime Minister David Cameron pledged to increase the black and ethnic minority (BME) employment rate by 20% as part of his Vision 2020.

Following this pledge, in February (2016), the Moving On Up Advisory Group Chair with BTEG and Trust for London met with the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) officials to discuss the Government’s plans for achieving this target referred to as “The BME 2020 Challenge”.

According to the Minister for Employment Priti Patel, this challenge needs to be tackled in a holistic way across all Government departments and local authorities. Indeed, to DWP, it is critical to achieve full employment, help people achieve their aspirations and ensure that British businesses make the most of the talent and potential that exists in the BME communities across the United Kingdom.

To help meet “The BME 2020 Challenge”, DWP is launching new guidance for Jobcentres and local partners, developing new approaches to support BME groups and targeting a number of BME unemployment hotspots the department has identified. In addition, DWP will ensure that all national employment programmes support BME groups with suitable services.

 

DWP guidance for Jobcentres:

Understand your community:

  • Prevalent ethnic groups
  • Consider delivering employment outreach services

Understand your claimants:

  • Understand the barriers to employment of your BME claimants
  • Tailor support to individual needs
  • Understand the different type of racial discrimination
  • Provide English Language support

Understand your employers:

  • Tell positive messages about the business benefits of a diverse workforce
  • Encourage employers to offer mentoring and work experience opportunities
  • Challenge your employers’ recruitment processes
  • Connect employers with community partners

Understand your partners:

  • Partnering with community organisations

Bola Abisogun FRICS, Chair of the Moving On Up Advisory Group takes young black men from Hackney on an inspirational journey to Atlanta

Mar 16, 2016

Growing up in Hackney, one of London’s most deprived boroughs, Bola Abisogun has always been aware of the key socio-economic issues that affect young black men in the UK. Being a father of three young men, he often asked himself - “how can I make a sustainable difference given that the imbalance in society is so profound?” This self-assigned mission was not only aimed at his family but also at his community, and it contributed greatly to his self-growth. Indeed, Bola’s aspiration was to grow an international business and in 2000, sixteen years ago, he embarked on a trip to Atlanta seeking to find the largest black owned construction companies in the US, which – at the time – confirmed that to be H.J. Russell. His conversation with the company’s founder, Mr. Herman Russell, inspired him to come back to London and make a contribution to the industry. He later founded UrbanIs, an organisation which has successfully established two US companies in the field of Economic Development and Construction Cost Management. Bola’s success led him to share his journey into business in local schools and empower young black men through BTEG’s Routes2Success project.

For Bola, it is and has always been important to ‘turn, look back and pass the baton’. The idea of taking a group of young black men from Hackney over to Atlanta arose from a series of conversation that Bola had with the young men that he has engaged with over the last 3 years. While sharing their individual stories, the cohort pointed out that there is a lack of opportunity for young black men in London, which stops them from making positive changes in their lives. Therefore, Bola sought to raise the aspiration in these young men by offering them a life-changing experience through which he hopes they will find their purpose and take their life plan to the next level. The trip will lasts six days during which the young men will visit the Federal Reserve Bank, attend the 2016 Construction CareerExpo at the Georgia Convention Center, have several meetings with ‘African American men from the Diaspora’, visit the Allen Entrepreneurial Institute, the Center for Civil and Human Rights, Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Social Change and visit many other places and meet local businessmen. Upon their return to London, each of the participants must identify five other young black men who could benefit from the same experience, all in pursuit of establishing a lasting legacy in the London Borough of Hackney.

What do young black men have to say about their high unemployment rate in the UK?

Mar 08, 2016

During an action research conducted by BTEG between 2013 and 2014, young black men were asked about their views and experiences of unemployment and job seeking. The participants, whose qualifications and employment status were similar to the profile of all young black men in London, provided moving personal accounts and important insights into the factors affecting their employment opportunities. In addition, they all shared understanding of each other’s experiences and viewpoints. Some of them described the high unemployment rates for young black men in the UK as the historical legacy of slavery. Even though these young men considered that this reason was not worth focusing on, they still felt that they are “trying hard” to make their way in a society where the odds are stacked against them. Unfortunately, they believe that employers simply reflect the rest of society’s negative stereotyping of young black men in terms of making recruitment decisions. On the other hand, the young men participating in the action research explained that the other factor affecting their employment opportunities is the quality of assistance from support services. Being active job seekers, they felt that most advisers from Jobcentre Plus or Work Programme were indifferent to their situations. Finally, they also believed that strong supportive networks are lacking in black communities compared with other ethnic minority communities. This factor disadvantages young black men when looking for work as they recognised that these are a valuable means of identifying opportunities and gaining work experience.

The following quotes obtained from the research reflect the range of views young black men expressed on unemployment and their experiences of looking for work.

   

 

   

 

For more information about the survey and BTEG’s action plan, click here

 

 

 

 

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